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L'essentiel de la littérature réçente en Pneumologie

In this heading we propose you a review of the literature through a selection of abstracts of recent original articles.
we will try to keep you informed about the last news on Pulmonology. We provide you only the summary of the article and the corresponding link, to reach the article in full text you must be registered with the corresponding review.

Click here to consult the list of the available free medical journals in lung diseases.

Humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease. Print E-mail
Thursday, 27 February 2014 06:41
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Humidifier disinfectant-associated children's interstitial lung disease.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jan 1;189(1):48-56

Authors: Kim KW, Ahn K, Yang HJ, Lee S, Park JD, Kim WK, Kim JT, Kim HH, Rha YH, Park YM, Sohn MH, Oh JW, Lee HR, Lim DH, Choung JT, Han MY, Lee E, Kim HY, Seo JH, Kim BJ, Cho YA, Do KH, Kim SA, Jang SJ, Lee MS, Kim HJ, Kwon GY, Park JH, Gwack J, Youn SK, Kwon JW, Jun BY, Pyun BY, Hong SJ

RATIONALE: Beginning in 2006, epidemics of a fatal lung injury of unknown cause in children were observed in Korea every spring. A recent study demonstrated that this type of children's interstitial lung disease (chILD) is associated with humidifier disinfectant use.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical characteristics of this type of chILD and to assess whether the nationwide suspension of humidifier disinfectant sales in the autumn of 2011 affected its incidence.
METHODS: The clinical characteristics of suspected cases between 2006 and 2011 were determined by a nationwide retrospective study. The potential causal relationship with humidifier disinfectants was examined by a prospective surveillance study after humidifier disinfectant sales were suspended.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In total, 138 children were diagnosed with this type of chILD, which was characterized by rapid progression, high mortality, predominance in the spring season, and a familial tendency. The annual incidence increased in 2011 and then dropped to zero in 2012. The children were on average 30.4 months old. The most frequent symptoms at admission were cough and dyspnea. As the disease progressed, the typical complication was spontaneous air leak. Eighty children (58%) died. Two years after humidifier disinfectant-sale suspension, no more new cases were found.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that humidifier disinfectant inhalation causes an idiopathic type of chILD that is characterized by spontaneous air leak, rapid progression, lack of response to treatment, and high mortality. Further safety studies must be performed on common environmental compounds, particularly those that enter the human body by an unusual route.

PMID: 24199596 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: Role of Plasticity and Heterogeneity. Print E-mail
Wednesday, 26 February 2014 07:19
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Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Chronic Respiratory Diseases: Role of Plasticity and Heterogeneity.

ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:859817

Authors: Conese M, Piro D, Carbone A, Castellani S, Di Gioia S

Chronic lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incurable and represent a very high social burden. Stem cell-based treatment may represent a hope for the cure of these diseases. In this paper, we revise the overall knowledge about the plasticity and engraftment of exogenous marrow-derived stem cells into the lung, as well as their usefulness in lung repair and therapy of chronic lung diseases. The lung is easily accessible and the pathophysiology of these diseases is characterized by injury, inflammation, and eventually by remodeling of the airways. Bone marrow-derived stem cells, including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs), encompass a wide array of cell subsets with different capacities of engraftment and injured tissue regenerating potential. Proof-of-principle that marrow cells administered locally may engraft and give rise to specialized epithelial cells has been given, but the efficiency of this conversion is too limited to give a therapeutic effect. Besides the identification of plasticity mechanisms, the characterization/isolation of the stem cell subpopulations represents a major challenge to improving the efficacy of transplantation protocols used in regenerative medicine for lung diseases.

PMID: 24563632 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils. Print E-mail
Wednesday, 26 February 2014 07:19
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Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils.

Nat Nanotechnol. 2014 Feb 23;

Authors: Wang Z, Li J, Cho J, Malik AB

Inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and ischaemic tissue injury are caused by the adhesion of a type of white blood cell-polymorphonuclear neutrophils-to the lining of the circulatory system or vascular endothelium and unchecked neutrophil transmigration. Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of activated neutrophils on vascular endothelial cells at the site of injury may be a useful means of directly inactivating neutrophil transmigration and hence mitigating vascular inflammation. Here, we report a method employing drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles, which efficiently deliver drugs into neutrophils adherent to the surface of the inflamed endothelium. Using intravital microscopy of tumour necrosis factor-α-challenged mouse cremaster post-capillary venules, we demonstrate that fluorescently tagged albumin nanoparticles are largely internalized by neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium via cell surface Fcɣ receptors. Administration of albumin nanoparticles loaded with the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, which blocks 'outside-in' β2 integrin signalling in leukocytes, detached the adherent neutrophils and elicited their release into the circulation. Thus, internalization of drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles into neutrophils inactivates the pro-inflammatory function of activated neutrophils, thereby offering a promising approach for treating inflammatory diseases resulting from inappropriate neutrophil sequestration and activation.

PMID: 24561355 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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